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lt-proc − This application is part of the lexical processing modules and tools ( lttoolbox )

This tool is part of the apertium machine translation architecture:


lt-proc [ −a | −g | −n | −p | −s | −v | −h ] fst_file [input_file [output_file]]

lt-proc [ −−analysis | −−generation | −−non-marked-gen | −−post-generation | −−sao | −−version | −−help ] fst_file [input_file [output_file]]


lt-proc is the application responsible of providing the four lexical processing functionalities

morphological analyser ( option −a )

lexical transfer ( option −n )

morphological generator ( option −g )

post-generator ( option −p )

It accomplishes these tasks by reading binary files containing a compact and efficient representation of dictionaries (a class of finite-state transducers called augmented letter transducers). These files are generated by lt−comp(1).

It is worth to mention that some characters (‘[’, ‘]’, ‘$’, ‘^’, ‘/’, ‘+’) are special chars used for format and encapsulation. They should be escaped if they have to be used literally, for instance: ‘[’...‘]’ are ignored and the format of a linefeed is ‘^...$’.


−a, −−analysis

Tokenizes the text in surface forms (lexical units as they appear in texts) and delivers, for each surface form, one or more lexical forms consisting of lemma, lexical category and morphological inflection information. Tokenization is not straightforward due to the existence, on the one hand, of contractions, and, on the other hand, of multi-word lexical units. For contractions, the system reads in a single surface form and delivers the corresponding sequence of lexical forms. Multi-word surface forms are analysed in a left-to-right, longest-match fashion. Multi-word surface forms may be invariable (such as a multi-word preposition or conjunction) or inflected (for example, in es, "echaban de menos", "they missed", is a form of the imperfect indicative tense of the verb "echar de menos", "to miss"). Limited support for some kinds of discontinuous multi-word units is also available. Single-word surface forms analysis produces output like the one in these examples: "cantar" −> ‘^cantar/cantar<vblex><inf>$’ or "cantaba" −> ‘^cantaba/cantar<vblex><pii><p1><sg>/cantar<vblex><pii><p3><sg>$’.

−g, −−generation

Delivers a target-language surface form for each target-language lexical form, by suitably inflecting it.

−n, −−non-marked-gen

Morphological generation (like -g) but without unknown word marks (asterisk ‘*’).

−p, −−post-generation

Performs orthographical operations such as contractions and apostrophations. The post-generator is usually dormant (just copies the input to the output) until a special alarm symbol contained in some target-language surface forms wakes it up to perform a particular string transformation if necessary; then it goes back to sleep.

−s, −−sao

Input processing is in orthoepikon (previosuly ‘sao’) annotation system format:

−v, −−version

Display the version number.

−h, −−help

Display this help.


input_file The input compiled dictionary.


lt-expand(1), lt-comp(1), apertium-tagger(1), apertium-translator(1).


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