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Synopsis_28 − Special Variables [DRAFT]




This is very much a work-in-progress. When this current draft is fairly complete, I (dvergin) intend to solicit critique and additions from the p6l. (In the meantime if you see needed changes and are unable to submit them yourself, you are welcome to email: dvergin at igc dot org.)

This document serves as a collection point for what is known about special variables in Perl 6 and correlates them with the changes from Perl 5.


If you are trying to find the Perl 6 equivalent of a Perl 5 special variable you know, try searching this file for the Perl 5 version. Each main entry is followed by a note containing the corresponding Perl 5 variable(s). The list of main entries is also followed by a table showing the 5 and 6 variables side-by-side.

Most/All variables of the form $*SOMETHING should also work in the form $SOMETHING (without the ’*’) unless masked by "my $SOMETHING".





Predefined filehandles for STDIN , STDOUT , and STDERR .


Replace STDIN , STDOUT , and STDERR .


The default input and pattern-searching space. Same as in Perl 5 but lexically scoped


$_ but more lexically aware.

$a, $b, $c ...

Parameters of the current closure (block or subroutine) by position in the invocation.


$_[0], $_[1], $_[2] ...


Object containing the results of the last regular expression match. All match result info found in the contained data structure. This is available as the current state of the match in progress.


No direct parallel.


Objects containing information on any subpatterns from the corresponding set of capturing parentheses from the last pattern match, not counting patterns matched in nested blocks that have been exited already. These variables are all read-only and dynamically scoped to the current BLOCK . Shortcut to same info in $/ with data structures containing such things as .start and .end (Unicode level independent).


$1,$2,$3... but now as objects, and base zero instead of one.


$0 (dollar-zero) is the string matched by the last successful pattern match (not counting any matches hidden within a BLOCK or eval() enclosed by the current BLOCK ). This variable is read-only and dynamically scoped to the current BLOCK . What would be returned by $1 if you had put parens around the entire match. $0 is not bound until the match succeeds.


$&, $MATCH

$*MOST_RECENT_CAPTURED_MATCH =item $/[−1] =item $/[−$n]

It’s not clear yet which of these would be used. Or whether to drop this.




$IN_FH.input_line_number ...or some such

May-be. Current line number for the filehandle. Each filehandle in Perl counts the number of lines that have been read from it. (Depending on the value of $IN_FH.input_rec_separator, Perl’s idea of what constitutes a line may not match yours.) When a line is read from a filehandle, or when tell() or seek() is called on it, $IN_FH.input_rec_separator becomes an alias to the line counter for that filehandle.


$. $NR $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER HANDLE− >input_line_number( EXPR ) But now with cleaned-up localization usage.

$IN_FH.input_rec_separator ...or some such

The input record separator, newline by default. This influences Perl’s idea of what a ‘‘line’’ is. Works like awk’s RS variable, including treating empty lines as a terminator if set to the null string. (An empty line cannot contain any spaces or tabs.) You may set it to a multi-character string to match a multi-character terminator, or to undef to read through the end of file. Setting it to "\n\n" means something slightly different than setting to "", if the file contains consecutive empty lines. Setting to "" will treat two or more consecutive empty lines as a single empty line. Setting to "\n\n" will blindly assume that the next input character belongs to the next paragraph, even if it’s a newline. (Mnemonic: / delimits line boundaries when quoting poetry.)

Remember: the value of $/ is a string, not a regex. awk has to be better for something. :−)


$/ $RS $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR IO::Handle−>input_record_separator( EXPR )

$OUT_FH.autoflush ...or some such

If set to nonzero, forces a flush right away and after every write or print on the currently selected output channel. Default is 0 (regardless of whether the channel is really buffered by the system or not; $OUT_FH.autoflush tells you only whether you’ve asked Perl explicitly to flush after each write). $*OUT will typically be line buffered if output is to the terminal and block buffered otherwise. Setting this variable is useful primarily when you are outputting to a pipe or socket, such as when you are running a Perl program under rsh and want to see the output as it’s happening. This has no effect on input buffering. (Mnemonic: when you want your pipes to be piping hot.)



. . . More to come here . . .


Because a blank entry in either column could be taken to mean either "not in Perl 6" or "unknown", the information as presented below presumes an entry in both columns for every entry. Options are:

thing as the var in question

− for "not in this Perl"

? for "don’t know yet"

Other organizational schemes may become appropriate when the table is more complete.

 Perl 5         Perl 6         Comment
 −−−−−−−−−−−    −−−−−−−−−−−    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
 STDIN          $*IN
 STDOUT         $*OUT
 STDERR         $*ERR
 $_             $_
 $_[1],$_[2]..  $^a,$^b..
 $a,$b            −            Just params to anonymous block
   −            $/             Object with results of last regex match
 $1,$2,$3...    $1,$2,$3...
 $&             $<>
 $`             $<pre>
 $'             $<post>
 $+               −            But info can now be retrieved from $/
 $^N            $*MOST_RECENT_CAPTURED_MATCH  ...or some such.
             or $/[−1]                        ...or omit
             or $/[−$n]
 @+               $1.end, etc.
 $*               −
 $.             $IN_FH.input_line_number  ...or some such
 $/             $IN_FH.input_rec_separator  ...or some such
 ******* XXX the columns seem to have switched! *********
 $OUT_FH.autoflush           ...or some such
         $|  $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH
 $OUT_FH.output_field_separator   ...or some such
 $OUT_FH.output_record_separator   ...or some such
 −       $"  $LIST_SEPARATOR
 −       $#             Output format for printed numbers.
 −       $%  $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER
 −           HANDLE−>format_page_number(EXPR)
 −           HANDLE−>format_lines_per_page(EXPR)
 −       $−  $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT
 −           HANDLE−>format_lines_left(EXPR)
 $1.start, etc.       @−  @LAST_MATCH_START
 −       $~  $FORMAT_NAME
 −           HANDLE−>format_name(EXPR)
 −       $^  $FORMAT_TOP_NAME
 −           HANDLE−>format_top_name(EXPR)
 −           IO::Handle−>format_line_break_characters
 −           IO::Handle−>format_formfeed
 −       $^A $ACCUMULATOR
 ?       ${^ENCODING}
 $!                     Universal error object with as much info as
                        you'd like on the current exception (unthrown
                        outside of CATCH, thrown inside).  Unthrown
                        exceptions are typically interesting values
                        of undef.
 −       $!  $ERRNO $OS_ERROR
 −       $?  $CHILD_ERROR
 −       $@  $EVAL_ERROR
 −       %!
 $*UID                  ...or some such
         $<  $UID $REAL_USER_ID
 $*EUID                 ...or some such
 $*GID                  ...or some such
         $(  $GID $REAL_GROUP_ID
 $*EGID                 ...or some such
 $*PROGRAM_NAME         ...or some such
         $0  $PROGRAM_NAME
 −       $[             Index of the first element in an array,
                        and of the first character in a substring.
 −       $^V $PERL_VERSION
 −       $]             version + patchlevel / 1000 of Perl interpreter
                        Replacement for the above two is unclear.
 $*COMPILING            ...or some such
         $^C $COMPILING
 $*DEBUGGING            ...or some such
         $^D $DEBUGGING
 $*SYS_FD_MAX           ...or some such
         $^F $SYSTEM_FD_MAX
 −       $^H
 −       %^H
 $*INPLACE_EDIT         ...or some such
         $^I $INPLACE_EDIT
 $*EMERGENCY_MEMORY     ...or some such (or omit)
 $*OSNAME               ...or some such
         $^O $OSNAME
 −       ${^OPEN}
 $*PERLDB               ...or some such
         $^P $PERLDB
 $*LAST_REGEXP_CODE_RESULT   ...or some such. Or omit.
 $*BASETIME             ...or some such
         $^T $BASETIME
 ?       ${^TAINT}
 ?       ${^UNICODE}
 −       $^W $WARNING   Probably gone. But we need a reasonably
                        granular way to suppress specific (groups
                        of) warnings within both lexical and
                        dynamic scopes.
 $*EXECUTABLE_NAME      ...or some such
 −       ARGV
 ?       $ARGV
 @*INPLACE_AUTOSPLIT_FIELDS   ..or some such
 ?       @INC        Uncertain but we need a way to add to search path
 ?       %INC        Uncertain but we need a way to add to search path
 ?       @_
 %*ENV   %ENV        Or %ENV
 %*SIG   %SIG        Or possibly &*ON_SIGINT, etc. But then we'd need
                     to add some signal introspection in another way.
 &*ON_DIE  __DIE__


 2005−04−11 dvergin     Filling in more pieces
 2005−04−10 dvergin     Roughed in main table
 2005−04−02 anonpugster Placeholder file containing Larry's email


At its present stage of development this file draws on a few key sources: Perl 5’s perlvar.pod (for a full list of special vars in Perl 5) and a perl6−language list thread documented below. E02 and S02 have also been helpful in several cases.

A key resource in compiling the new material above has been a thread on the perl6−language email list which can be found at:

  http://www.mail−−language AT perl DOT org/msg18609.html

For our present purposes, the most helpful item in that thread is the head post found at the url given above. It is an item by Larry Wall which is reproduced here: _________________________________________________________________

 Mailing−List: contact perl6−language−help AT perl DOT org; run by ezmlm
 Date: Sat, 26 Mar 2005 00:27:24 −0800
 From: Larry Wall <larry AT wall DOT org>
 To: perl6−compiler AT perl DOT org
 Cc: perl6−language AT perl DOT org
 Subject: S28ish [was: [Pugs] A couple of string interpolation edge cases]
 On Sat, Mar 26, 2005 at 02:11:29PM +0800, Audrey Tang wrote:
 : On Fri, Mar 25, 2005 at 10:03:45PM −0800, Larry Wall wrote:
 : > Hmm, well, if it got that far.  Given strict being on by default,
 : > this particular example should probably just die on the fact that $"
 : > isn't declared, since there's no $" in Perl 6.
 : Is $" okay as a variable name?  Is everything from perlvar.pod legal? :)
 Considering nobody's written perlvar.pod for Perl 6 yet, yeah, everything
 in that pod is legal.  :−)
 :     my $" = 3;
 : Pugs parses that because it only considers $! and $/ as legal
 : symbolic variable names.
 $! will be a legal variable name.  $/ is going away, as is $", which
 means they fail under "use strict", but they'd still autocreate
 globals under laxity as Perl 5 does.  (I know Perl 5 exempted all
 special variables from strict, but I don't see why we have to do
 that for Perl 6.  Merely having $_ in the lexical scope or $*! in the
 global scope should be sufficient declaration to get around strict.
 Though perhaps we can exempt people from having to write $*! under
 strict.  In fact, that probably goes for all predeclared $* names,
 so $IN is legal for $*IN as long as you don't have "my $IN" hiding
 it.  Another way to look at it is that * variables are basically
 autodeclared "our" implicitly in the outermost lexical scope.)
 Sigh, I'd better rough it all in here, even if I don't have time to
 do a good job on it.  Maybe somebody can beat this into a real S28 pod.
 $? and $@ are gone, merged in with $!.  (Frees up ? twigil for $?FOO
 syntax.)  $^E is merged too.  $! is an object with as much info as
 you'd like on the current exception (unthrown outside of CATCH, thrown
 inside).  Unthrown exceptions are typically interesting values of undef.
 $$ is now $*PID.  ($$foo is now unambuous.)
 $0 is gone in favor of $*PROGRAM_NAME or some such.
 Anything that varied with the selected output filehandle like $|
 is now a method on that filehande, and the variables don't exist.
 (The p5−to−p6 translator will probably end up depending on some
 $Perl5ish::selected_output_filehandle variable to emulate Perl 5's
 single−arg select().)  Likewise $/ and $. should be attached to
 a particular input filehandle.  (In fact, $/ is now the result of
 the last regular expression match, though we might keep the idea of
 $. around in some form or other just because it's awfully handy for
 error messages.  But the localizing $. business is yucky.  We have
 to clean that up.)
 All the special format variables ($%, $=, $−, $:, $~, $^, $^A, $^L)
 are gone.  (Frees up the = twigil for %= POD doc structures and
 old __DATA__ stream, the : twigil for private attributes, and the ~
 twigil for autodeclared parameters.)
 $`, $', and $+ don't exist any more, but you can dig that info out
 of $/'s structures.  Shortcuts into $/ include $1, $2, and such, and
 the newfangled $<foo> things.  Also, $& is changed to $0 for the whole
 matched string.  $` and $' may be $<pre> and $<post>, but you probably
 have to explicitly match <pre> and <post> to get them remembered,
 so we don't have a repeat of the Perl 5 sawampersand fiasco.  <pre>
 and <post> would automatically exclude themselves from $0.  Or you
 need some special flag to remember them, maybe.
 %+ and %− are gone.  $0, $1, $2,  etc. are all objects that know
 where they .start and .end.  (Mind you, those methods return magical
 positions that are Unicode level independent.)
 $* and $# have been deprecated half of forever and are gone.  $[
 is a fossil that I suppose could turn into an evil pragma, if we
 try to translate it at all.  (Frees up * twigil for $*FOO syntax.)
 $(, $), $<, and $> should all change to various $*FOO names.  $] is either
 something in $* or a trait of the Perl namespace.  Likewise $^V, if
 they aren't in fact merged.
 ${...} is reserved for hard refs only now.  ($::(...) must be used
 for symbolics refs.)  ${^foo} should just change to $*foo or $*_foo
 or some such.
 $; is gone because the multidim hash hack is gone.  $" is gone,
 replaced by  AT foo DOT join(":") or some such.  Likewise for $, in print
 We never did find a use for $}, thank goodness.
 And we still are keeping $_ around, though it's lexically scoped.
 Let's see, what other damage can we do to perlvar.  $a and $b are
 no longer special.  No bareword filehandles.  $*IN, $*OUT, $*ERR.
 Args come in @*ARGS rather than @ARGV.  (Environment still in %ENV,
 will wonders never cease.)  I don't know whether @INC and %INC will
 make as much sense when we're looking installed modules in a database,
 though I suppose you still have to let the user add places to look.
 %SIG is now %*SIG.  The __DIE__ and __WARN__ hooks should be brought
 out as separate &*ON_DIE and &*ON_WARN variables−−they really
 have nothing to do with signals.  I suppose we could even do away
 with %SIG and replace it with &*ON_SIGINT and such, though then we'd
 lose a bit of signal introspection which would have to be provided
 some other way.  Oh, and we probably ought to split out &?ON_PARSEERROR
 from $*ON_DIE to get rid of the $^S fiasco of Perl 5.
 $^C, $^D, $^F, $^I, $^M, $^O, $^P, $^S, $^T, $^V, $^X are all renamed
 to something $*FOOish, at least the ones that aren't going away entirely.
 $^W is is too blunt an instrument even in Perl 5, so it's probably gone.
 I'm not quite sure what to do with $^N or $^R yet.  Most likely they
 end up as something $<foo>ish, if they stay.
 You weren't ever supposed to know about $^H and %^H.  Or %{^FNORD}...
 Other things might show up as global variables in support of
 command−line options, like $*ARGVOUT or @*F.  Some of the special
 variables we've blissfull relegated to the trash heap might
 creep back in as global variables that just happen to know about
 $*Perl5ish::current_selected_filehandle and such, but we should
 probably try to keep them as lvalue subs in &Perl5ish::ors() and such.
 Anyway, it's all negotiable, except for the parts that aren't.