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Plack::Test − Test PSGI applications with various backends


  use Plack::Test;
  # named params
      app => sub {
          my $env = shift;
          return [ 200, [ 'Content−Type' => 'text/plain' ], [ "Hello World" ] ],
      client => sub {
          my $cb  = shift;
          my $req = HTTP::Request−>new(GET => "http://localhost/hello");
          my $res = $cb−>($req);
          like $res−>content, qr/Hello World/;
   use HTTP::Request::Common;
   # positional params (app, client)
   my $app = sub { return [ 200, [], [ "Hello "] ] };
   test_psgi $app, sub {
       my $cb  = shift;
       my $res = $cb−>(GET "/");
       is $res−>content, "Hello";


Plack::Test is a unified interface to test PSGI applications using HTTP::Request and HTTP::Response objects. It also allows you to run PSGI applications in various ways. The default backend is "Plack::Test::MockHTTP", but you may also use any Plack::Handler implementation to run live HTTP requests against at web server



  test_psgi $app, $client;
  test_psgi app => $app, client => $client;

Runs the client test code $client against a PSGI application $app. The client callback gets one argument $cb, a callback that accepts an "HTTP::Request" object and returns an "HTTP::Response" object.

Use HTTP::Request::Common to import shortcuts for creating requests for "GET", "POST", "DELETE", and "PUT" operations.

For your convenience, the "HTTP::Request" given to the callback automatically uses the HTTP protocol and the localhost ( by default), so the following code just works:

  use HTTP::Request::Common;
  test_psgi $app, sub {
      my $cb  = shift;
      my $res = $cb−>(GET "/hello");

Note that however, it is not a good idea to pass an arbitrary (i.e. user-input) string to "GET" or even "HTTP::Request−>new" by assuming that it always represents a path, because:

  my $req = GET "//foo/bar";

would represent a request for a URL that has no scheme, has a hostname foo and a path /bar, instead of a path //foo/bar which you might actually want.


Specify the Plack::Test backend using the environment variable "PLACK_TEST_IMPL" or $Plack::Test::Impl package variable.

The available values for the backend are:

(Default) Creates a PSGI env hash out of HTTP::Request object, runs the PSGI application in-process and returns HTTP::Response.


Runs one of Plack::Handler backends ("Standalone" by default) and sends live HTTP requests to test.


Runs tests against an external server specified in the "PLACK_TEST_EXTERNALSERVER_URI" environment variable instead of spawning the application in a server locally.

For instance, test your application with the "HTTP::Server::ServerSimple" server backend with:

  > env PLACK_TEST_IMPL=Server PLACK_SERVER=HTTP::Server::ServerSimple \
    prove −l t/test.t


Tatsuhiko Miyagawa