complex − basics of complex mathematics

**#include <complex.h>**

Complex numbers are numbers of the form z = a+b*i, where a and b are real numbers and i = sqrt(−1), so that i*i = −1.

There are other ways to represent that number. The pair (a,b) of real numbers may be viewed as a point in the plane, given by X- and Y-coordinates. This same point may also be described by giving the pair of real numbers (r,phi), where r is the distance to the origin O, and phi the angle between the X-axis and the line Oz. Now z = r*exp(i*phi) = r*(cos(phi)+i*sin(phi)).

The basic operations are defined on z = a+b*i and w = c+d*i as:

addition: z+w = (a+c) + (b+d)*i

multiplication: z*w = (a*c − b*d) + (a*d + b*c)*i

division: z/w = ((a*c + b*d)/(c*c + d*d)) + ((b*c − a*d)/(c*c + d*d))*i

Nearly all math function have a complex counterpart but there are some complex-only functions.

Your C-compiler can work with complex numbers if it supports the C99 standard. Link with *−lm*. The imaginary unit is represented by I.

/* check that exp(i * pi) == −1 */

#include <math.h> /* for atan */

#include <stdio.h>

#include <complex.h>

int

main(void)

{

double pi = 4 * atan(1.0);

double complex z = cexp(I * pi);

printf("%f + %f * i\n", creal(z), cimag(z));

}

**cabs(3)**, **cacos(3)**, **cacosh(3)**, **carg(3)**, **casin(3)**, **casinh(3)**, **catan(3)**, **catanh(3)**, **ccos(3)**, **ccosh(3)**, **cerf(3)**, **cexp(3)**, **cexp2(3)**, **cimag(3)**, **clog(3)**, **clog10(3)**, **clog2(3)**, **conj(3)**, **cpow(3)**, **cproj(3)**, **creal(3)**, **csin(3)**, **csinh(3)**, **csqrt(3)**, **ctan(3)**, **ctanh(3)**

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